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A teleological conception of history begins with Hegel and terminates with Foucault. The following text will not concern itself with Hegel and the Hegelian interpretation of history, it will not be an extensive analysis of the notion of historical teleology, nor will it attempt to discuss every thinker who has used this notion. Neither will it attempt to lay down a comprehensive history nor theory of the Subject. Instead, we will focus on a comparison between the historical and philosophical methodologies of Edmund Husserl and Michel Foucault and their respective theories of the Subject, while extending the antagonism between the…


Awakening from the Boolean Dream

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I decided to delve deeper into the literature on AI and Psychoanalysis. Obviously, this is a very narrow and under-investigated field. You can imagine my surprise when I found a 1988 article by Sherry Turkle titled Artificial Intelligence and Psychoanalysis: A New Alliance. I kept wondering whether a psychoanalysis of artificial systems would be a sub-branch of another emerging field called Machine Behaviour. Assuming the relationship between the two would be similar to the relationship between empirical behavioristic psychology and traditional psychoanalysis. …


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I recently came across an article that caught my attention. Written just last year. It draws a parallel between AI and psychoanalysis. Which seemed until now two completely divergent fields. It argues that we can psychoanalyze an AI. But how would that make sense? Machine Behavior, an emerging field in “psycho-robotics”, argues that it does.

“We need to study AI systems not merely as engineering artifacts, but as a class of social actors with particular behavioral patterns and ecology (Possati, L.M. 2020).”

It seems that for the psychoanalysts of Artificial Intelligence, the unconscious is structured more like a machine, a…


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Visual programming poses itself as a serious enigma to engineers. How could we teach an AI to identify visual patterns and decode images? The human brain has an amazing ability to process visual information. Rorschach inkblots testify to the level of creativity that can be achieved through visual projections. It is one of the most impressive evolutionary adaptations that ensured our survival in the past. “Any animal’s ability to survive depends in part on its ability to pick out structure in the visual mess that Nature confronts us with” (Du Sautoy, M., 2019).

The very same mechanism that was responsible…


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The problem of pinning down, understanding, defining and reproducing creativity is where Artificial Intelligence meets Cognitive Science. In order to recreate creativity, we first need to see into the human code, that is, the conditions of possibility for human creativity. A distinction between Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science is similar to the distinction we have made previously in “Tinkering Production”: Defining Bioengineering between engineering and biology in order to define the techno-scientific notion of bioengineering. If the cognitive sciences attempt to understand and describe the human code, studies in Artificial Intelligence seek to reproduce it.

Human creativity is broken down…


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“For a machine to be deemed truly creative requires one extra step: its contribution should be more than an expression of the coder’s creativity or that of the person who built the data set. That is the challenge Ada Lovelace believed was insurmountable” (Du Sautoy, M., 2019).

Written by Marcus Du Sautoy, distinguished professor of mathematics at Oxford University, the title of the book is more than self-explanatory; to my mind, it is one of the most original pieces on Artificial Intelligence. Du Sautoy surprises the reader with an entirely novel approach. Not only does he focus on the most…


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Let’s look at all the different ways that Synthetic Biology has been defined over the years in academic literature. The definitions range from purpose-driven accounts, to analytic concepts, to mere descriptive statements. Some scholars argue that the goal of bioengineering is to construct new living systems, others believe it is to create and engineer functional biological designer devices and systems with novel and useful functions. Others yet, think synthetic biology is a combination of engineering with biology. More definitions include:

The engineering-driven building of increasingly complex biological entities for novel applications - The intentional design, modeling, construction, debugging, and testing…


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In Raising Ethical Machines: Bottom-Up Methods to Implementing Machine Ethics Marten H. L. Kaas offers an alternative method for instilling ethical algorithms into A.I.’s.

Traditionally, the strategy for deploying ethical decision-making algorithms was to start from general ethical theories and pre-suppositions and then apply them to particular situations. This is known as the “top-down” approach. But what if we were to reverse this method and allow for the A.I. to abstract its own rules, locally through regional regularities and particular cases?

Asimov’s Laws are a classical top-down model for Machine Ethics. But according to Kaas, just like most top-down models…


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Isaac Asimov’s short story Runaround has had a powerful impact on the A.I. culture. But especially noteworthy, are the three famous laws of robotics. That is, the three fundamental rules that all autonomous systems must abide by, in order to ensure ethical interaction with their fellow humans. The three laws are still being used in ethical and legal debates over A.I. morality and behavior. Runaround is pretty much a fictional case-study on how the three laws are to be interpreted, understood and even scrutinized through counterexamples. Let us state the three fundamental laws:

1. A robot may not injure a human or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

2. A robot must obey the orders given to it by a human being except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws.

It is clearly visible that the three…


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Let’s talk about ethical issues in machine law. Specifically, I want to discuss the question of Artificial Intelligence and legal personhood. Could we grant an A.I. civil rights and let it represent itself or get represented by a lawyer in a court of law? Roman Yampolskiy, in his inspiring article: AI Personhood: Rights and Laws, discusses the possibility of legal representation of A.I.’s, its role in business automation, problems, difficulties, moral dilemmas and possible solutions.

Non-human entities like legal firms, corporations and governments are known to possess legal personhood. Yampolskiy argues that certain legal rights and privileges could be granted…

Giorgi Vachnadze

Philosopher

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